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Staff Directory

Chair Professor of Language and Cognitive Sciences        Professor WANG, Shi Yuan William
       (Ph.D., M.A., B.A.)

Areas of Scholarship:

Brain and Language, Chinese languages and dialects,

Experimental phonetics, Evolutionary linguistics, Lexical diffusion,

Phonetics and Phonology


Chinese, Communication sciences, English, Language evolution,

Natural language processing, Linguistics, Santa Fe Institute

Summer School in Complexity Theory, etc.

Full ProfileResearch


1956-1960: Ph.D., University of Michigan
1955-1956: M. A., University of Michigan
1951-1955: B.A., Columbia College

Work Experience

2013-2015 Director, CUHK-PKU-UST Joint Research Center for Language and Human Complexity, Chinese University of Hong Kong
2004-2015 Research Professor of the Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong
1996-2004 Chair Professor of Language Engineering, City University of Hong Kong
1973- Founding editor, Journal of Chinese Linguistics
1966-1995 Professor of Linguistics, University of California at Berkeley
1963-1965 Associate Professor and Chairman of the newly created Division of Linguistics & Division of East Asian Languages and Literature, Ohio State University.
1960-1961 Assistant Professor of English, Ohio State University.

Professional Affiliation

  • Academician, Academia Sinica
  • Golden Language Award, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
  • Honorary Professor, Faculty of Arts. CUHK
  • Honorary Professor, Nanjing Normal University
  • Honorary Professor, Dalian Nationalities University
  • Honorary Professor, Beijing Language and Culture University
  • Honorary Professor, Peking University
  • Honorary Professor, Nankai University
  • Honorary Professor, Fudan University
  • Inaugural President, International Association of Chinese Linguistics (IACL)

Research Output   


  • Peterson, G.E., W.S-Y. Wang and E. Sivertsen. 1958. Segmentation techniques in speech synthesis. The University of Michigan Speech Research Laboratory Report No. 1 5-17.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and G.E. Peterson. 1958. Segment inventory for speech synthesis. The University of Michigan Speech Research Laboratory Report No. 1 19-28.
  • Shen, Y., W.S-Y. Wang and S. Yotsukura. 1958. Some suprasegmental features in English, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese. The English Teachers Magazine 7.9.463-72, Tokyo.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1959. Transition and release as perceptual cues for final plosives. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 2.66-73. Reprinted in I. Lehiste ed. Readings in Acoustic Phonetics. M.I.T. Press, 1967.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and J. Crawford. 1960. Frequency studies of English consonants.  Language and Speech 3.3.131-9.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and C.J. Fillmore. 1961. Intrinsic cues and consonant perception. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 4.2.130-6.
  • Reeds, J.A. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1961.  The perception of stops after s.  Phonetica 6.1.78-81.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1962. Stress in English. Language Learning 12.1.69-77.
  • Thatcher, James W. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1962. The measurement of functional load. The University of Michigan Communication Sciences Laboratory Report No. 8 1-25.
  • L.F. Meyers and W.S-Y. Wang. 1963. Tree representations in linguistics. Project on Linguistic Analysis Report 3.54-111. Ohio State University Research Foundation.
  • W.S-Y. Wang, Robert L. Brotzman & Kung-pu Li. 1963. Research on Mandarin phonology. Project on Linguistic Analysis Report 6.1-63. Ohio State University Research Foundation.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1964. Some syntactic rules for Mandarin. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists 191-202, Mouton. Japanese translation: May 1964. Yusunori Ohkochi 大河内康憲. Chugokugogaku (中國語學)140.1-19.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1965. Two aspect markers in Mandarin. Language 41.3.457-70. Japanese summary by Yasokochi Mochizuki in Chukokugogaku 157.1-6, January 1966.  Reprinted in Readings in Chinese Transformational Syntax, 281-95. S.H. Teng, ed.  Crane Publishing Company, Taibei, 1983. Chinese translation: 袁毓林譯. 現代漢語中的兩個體標記. 《國外語言學》1.25-33, 1990.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1966. 句法分析的原則. 《中國語文月刊》 108.2-16, Taibei.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1967. Conjoining and deletion in Mandarin syntax. Monumenta Serica 26.224-36.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1967. The measurement of functional load. Phonetica 16.36-54.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1967. Phonological features of tone. International Journal of American Linguistics 33.93-105.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1967. Bibliography of Chinese Linguistics. Current Trends in Linguistics 2.188-499. T.A. Sebeok ed., Mouton.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and K.P. Li. 1967. Tone 3 in Pekinese. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 10.3.629-36. Reprinted in Wang, W.S-Y. 1991. Explorations in Language. 186-92. Chinese translation: 2000. 焦立為譯. 北京話的第三調. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1968. Vowel features, paired variables and the English vowel shift.  Language 44.4.695-708. Reprinted with postscript in Essays on the Sound Pattern of English 377-94. D.L. Goyvaerts and G.K. Pullum eds. Ghent 1975.
  • Mohr, B. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1968. Perceptual distance and the specification of phonological features. Phonetica 18.31-45.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1969. Competing changes as a cause of residue. Language 45.9-25. Reprinted with postscript in P. Baldi and R.N. Werth eds. Readings in Historical Phonology, 236-57. Pennsylvania University Press 1978.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1970. Project DOC: its methodological basis. Journal of American Oriental Society 90.1.57-66. 
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and C.C. Cheng. 1970. Implementation of phonological change, the Shuang-Feng Chinese case. Papers from Sixth Regional Meeting Chicago Linguistic Society 552-9. Reprinted in The Lexicon in Phonological Change. W.S-Y. Wang ed. Mouton, 148-58. 1977.
  • Cheng, C.C. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1971. Phonological change of Middle Chinese initials.  Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies 9.1.216-70.
  • Cheng, C.C. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1973. Tone change in Chaozhou Chinese: a study in lexical diffusion. Issues in Linguistics: Papers in Honor of Henry and Renee Kahane. B. Kachru et al eds. University of Illinois Press. 99-113. Reprinted in The Lexicon in Phonological Change. W.S-Y. Wang ed. Mouton, 86-100. 1977.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1971. The basis of speech. The Learning of Language 267-306. C.E. Reed, ed. New York. Japanese translation by Mieko Ogura. Tokyo: Kenkyusha Publishers研究社出版. 91-147.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1972. Approaches to phonology. Current Trends in Linguistics 10.101-21. T.A. Sebeok ed. Mouton.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1972. The many uses of F0. Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics to the Memory of Pierre Delattre 487-503. A. Valdman ed. The Hague: Mouton. Chinese translation: 2000. 焦立為譯. F0 的種種用途. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 253-66.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1973. The Chinese language. Scientific American 228.53-62.
    Translations published in:   Chinese (《語言與人類交際》. 廣西教育出版社);
    French (Pour la Science);
    Italian (Le Scienze);
    German (Spectrum der Wissenschaft).
  • Wang, W.S-Y., S.W. Chan and B.K. T'sou. 1973. Chinese linguistics and the computer.  Linguistics 118.89-117. Also in Proceedings of US-Japan Computer Conference 1972. Chinese translation: 1979. 王廣義譯. 王士元, 陳偉昌&鄒嘉彥. 漢語語言學與計算機. in 《語言學動態》4.19-27. Beijing.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1974. Why and how do we study the sounds of speech. 39-53. in J.L. Mitchell ed. Computers in the Humanities. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1974. 語言研究講話.Journal of Chinese Linguistics 2.1.1-24.
  • Chen, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1975. Sound change: actuation and implementation. Language 51.1.255-81.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1976. Language change. Annals of the N.Y. Academy of Science 280.61-72.
  • Lehiste, I. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1976. Perception of sentence boundaries with and without semantic information. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 19.(=Phonologica 1976) 277-83.
  • Hardyck, C., O. Tzeng & W.S-Y. Wang. 1977. Cerebral lateralization effects in visual half-field experiments. Nature 269.705-7.
  • Tzeng, O.J.L., D.L. Hung and W.S-Y. Wang. 1977. Speech recoding in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3.621-30.
  • Chuang, C.K. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1978. Use of optical distance sensing to track tongue motion. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 21.482-96.
  • Hardyck, C., O.J.L. Tzeng and W.S-Y. Wang. 1978. Lateralization of function and bilingual decision processes: is thinking lateralized? Brain and Language 5.56-71.
  • Chuang, C.K. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1978. Psychophysical pitch biases related to vowel quality, intensity difference, and sequential order. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 64.4.1004-14.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1978. The three scales of diachrony. In B.B. Kachru ed.Linguistics in the Seventies: Directions and Prospects. 63-75. Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois. Chinese translation: 2000. 孫暉, 丁安琪譯. 語言歷時研究的三種尺度. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 187-201.
  • Fillmore, C.J., D. Kempler and W.S-Y. Wang. 1979. Introductory chapter to Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior. Academic Press. 1-10.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1979. Language change: a lexical perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology 8.353-71. Chinese translation: i) 1982. 《語言研究》3.34-48. ii) 2000. 凃又光譯. 語言變化的詞彙透視. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 49-69.
  • Tzeng, O.J.L., D. Hung, Cotton B. & W.S-Y. Wang. 1979. Visual lateralization effect in reading Chinese characters. Nature 282.499-501.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1981. Language structure and optimal orthography. In Tzeng and Singer ed. The Perception of Print: Reading Research in Experimental Psychology. 223-36. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1982. Variation and selection in language change. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology 53.495-519.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1983. Speech and script relations in some Asian languages. In M. Chu-Chang ed. Asian- and Pacific- American Perspectives in Bilingual Education: Comparative Research. 56-72. N.Y.: Teachers College Press.
  • Tzeng, Ovid J.L. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1983. The first two R’s. American Scientist 71.238-43. Exchanges in 7.452-6 and 7.566-70. Chinese abstract in Reading Association Newsletter 3, Feb. 1984 (Hong Kong). Reprinted in R.B. Ruddell, M.R. Ruddell & H. Singer eds. 1994. Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading, 3rd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum. Also in Wang, W.S-Y. 1991. Explorations in Language. 281-92. Chinese translation: 1985. 沈鍾偉譯. 人腦對書面文字的處理. 《語言研究》 8.15-24.
  • Polich, J.M., G. McCarthy, W.S-Y. Wang and E. Donchin. 1983. When words collide: orthographic and phonological interference during word processing. Biological Psychology 16.155-80.
  • Tzeng, O.J.L. & W.S-Y. Wang. 1984. Search for a common neuro-cognitive mechanism for language and movements. American Journal of Physiology 246.R904-R11.
  • Wang, W.S-Y and Xu Tongqiang. 1984. Conversation on historical linguistics. 語言學論叢 13.250-8. 北京. 商務印書館.  徐通鏘. (1984). 美國語言學家談歷史語言學:王士元教授談語言的變異與語言的發展. 《語言學論叢》13, 200-258.
  • Lin, Tao and W.S-Y. Wang. December 1984. 聲調感知問題. 《中國語言學報》2.59-69. Beijing. [Problems of tone perception.]
  • Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. & W.S-Y. Wang. 1986. Spatial distance and lexical replacement. Language 62.38-55.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and C.C. Cheng. 1987. Middle Chinese tones in modern dialects. In R. Channon and L. Shockey eds. In Honor of Ilse Lehiste. 513-23. Foris Publishers.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1987. Representing language relationships. In H. Hoenigswald and L. Wiener eds. Biological Metaphor and Cladistic Classification. 243-56.University of Pennsylvania Press. Chinese translation: 1985. 沈鍾偉譯. 語言關係綜述.《中南民族學院學報》3.106-12. 武漢.  Reprinted in 2000. 語言關係的表述. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 202-16.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1987. A note on tone development. Wang Li Memorial Volumes. English volume. Edited by The Chinese Language Society of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Company. 435-43. Chinese translation: 1987. 劉漢城, 張文軒譯. 聲調發展方式一說. 《蘭州學刊》 38.83-6. Also in 1988. 《語文研究 》26.38-42. Reprinted in 2000. 聲調發展方式札記一則. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 267-72
  • Shen, Z.W., C. Wooters and W.S-Y. Wang. 1987. Closure duration in the classification of stops: a statistical analysis. Studies Presented to Ilse Lehiste. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 35.197-209. Reprinted in Wang 2010. 403-17.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1988. 電腦在語言學裏的運用. Proceedings of ROCLING I 257-87. R.O.C. Computational Linguistics Workshop I, Taiwan. [The use of computers in linguistics.]
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1989. Language in China: a chapter in the history of linguistics. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 17.2.183-222.Chinese translation: 1991. 張文軒譯. 漢語語言學發展的歷史回顧. 《蘭州學刊》 2. 79-89, 104.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1989. The migrations of the Chinese people and the settlement of Taiwan. 15-36. Anthropological Studies of the Taiwan Area:  Accomplishments and Prospects , edited by Kuang-chou Li. Taipei: Department of Anthropology, National Taiwan University.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1989. A phonetic study of Japanese stop consonants. 115-28. Phonophilia: Festschrift for Professor Zaic. W. Grosser et al eds. Salzburg University Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1989. Language prefabs and habitual thought. Forum Lectures, TESOL Summer Institute, San Francisco State University. Reprinted in Wang, W.S-Y. 1991. Explorations in Language. 397-412. 語言構件和習慣思維. 王士元著, 尹玉霞譯, 石鋒校.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1990. 漢語教學三點看法. Proceedingsof the Second World Chinese Language Conference. Volume 1 (Taibei).13-23.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1990. Theoretical issues in studying Chinese dialects. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 25.1-34.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and Z.W. Shen. 1991. 詞匯擴散的動態描寫. 《語言研究》 20.15-33. [Current research in lexical diffusion.]
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1991. The development of the Indo-European languages: from a perspective of dynamic dialectology. Studies in Dravidian and General Linguistics: a Festschrift for Bh. Krishnamurti. 280-337. Hyderabad: Osmania University Press.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1991. Isoglosses: artifactual or real. In Bela Brogyanyi ed. Prehistory, History and Historiography of Language, Speech and Linguistic Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 153-181.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1991. 漢語語言學發展的歷史回顧. 《蘭州學刊》 59(2).79-89, 104.張文軒譯.
  • Husmann, L.E. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1991. Ethnolinguistic notes on the Dungan. Sino-Platonic Papers 27.71-84. University of Pennsylvania: Department of Oriental Studies. Chinese translation: 2000. 劉丹青譯. 東干語的民族語言學札記. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 305-16.
  • Ogura, M., W.S-Y. Wang and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza. 1991. The development of Middle English /i/ in England: a Study in Dynamic Dialectology. 63-106. In Penelope Eckert, ed. New Ways of Analyzing Sound Change. Academic Press. Reprinted in a91. 1998. Jacek Fisiak and Akio Oizumi eds. English Historical Linguistics and Philology in Japan. Mouton de Gruyter. 237-86.
  • Wang, .S-Y. and Z.W. Shen. 1992. 方言關係的計量表述. 《中國語文》. 2.81-92. [Quantitative description of dialect relationship.]
  • Mountain, J.L., W.S-Y. Wang, R.F. Du, Y.D. Yuan and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza. 1992. Congruence of genetic and linguistic evolution in China. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 20.315-31.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. & C.F. Lien. 1993. Bidirectional diffusion in sound change. Historical Linguistics: Problems and Perspectives, ed. by C. Jones, Longman.  345-400.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1994. 語言變化的機理. 《中國境内語言暨語言學》 2.1-20. Taiwan.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1994. 漢語方言研究的理論斷想. 張文軒譯, 劉漢城校. 《青海民族學院學報》(社會科學版)1994年第三期. 57-61, 80.
  • Shen, Z.W. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1995. 吳語濁塞音的研究—統計上的分析和理論上的考慮. 219-38 in Xu Yunyang徐雲揚ed. 《吳語研究》. Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.  
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1995. Lexical diffusion in semantic change: with special reference to universal changes. Folia Linguistica Historica XVI/1-2.29-73.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and R.E. Asher. 1995. Chinese linguistic tradition. Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. E.F.K. Koerner and R.E. Asher eds. New York: Pergamon Press. 41-44.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1996a. Genes, dates and the writing system. Commentaries on “Early Contacts between Indo-Europeans and Chinese”. International Review of Chinese Linguistics 1.1.45-7. Chinese translation: 2000. 石鋒譯. 基因、年代和文字系統. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 217-22.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1996b. Lexical diffusion: retrospect and prospect. Contemporary Chinese Linguistics 1.1.
     Chinese translation: 1997. 詞匯擴散理論: 回顧和前瞻. 張敏譯. 154-58 in《中國語言學論叢》(第一輯), ed. 黃正德.北京語言文化大學出版社. 
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1996c. Linguistic diversity and language relationships. Chapter 7 in C.T. James Huang and Y.H. Audrey Li eds. New Horizons in Chinese Linguistics. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 235-67. Chinese translation: 1996. 劉娟, 石鋒譯. 語言的變異及語言的關係. 《漢語研究在海外》. 呂必松主編. 1-30. 北京語言學院出版社.
  • Freedman, D.A. & W.S-Y. Wang. 1996. Language polygenesis: a probabilistic model. Anthropological Science 104.2.131-8.
  • Liu, G.K.F. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1996. 白馬非馬: a case of folk etymology. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 24.128-37.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1996a. Snowball effect in lexical diffusion: the development of -s in the third person singular present indicative in English. In Derek Britton ed. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, vol.135, English Historical Linguistics 1994. Papers from the 8th International Congress on English Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 119-41.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1996b. Lexical diffusion and evolution theory. In Raymond Hickey and Stanislav Puppel eds. Language History andLinguistic Modelling: A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60th Birthday. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 1083-98.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1996c. Explorations in the origins of the Japanese language. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of the Japanese. International Symposium 1996. International Research Center for Japanese Studies. 309-34.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1997a. A quantitative study of Zhuang-Dong languages. In Anne O. Yue and Mitsuaki Endo遠藤光曉eds. In Memory of Mantaro J. Hashimoto 橋本萬太郎紀念中國語學論集. Tokyo: Uchiyama Books內山書店. 81-96.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1997b. Languages or dialects? CUHK Journal of Humanities 1. K.K. Tam ed. Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. 54-62.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1998a. Language and the evolution of modern humans. Recent Advances in Human Biology, vol. 3, The Origins and Past of Modern Humans- Towards Reconciliation. Keiichi Omoto and Phillip V. Tobias eds. Singapore: World Scientific. 247-62.
  • Wang, S-Y.  William. 1998b. Three windows on the past. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia, ed. by V.H. Mair, 508-34: University of Pennsylvania Museum Publications.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 1998. Evolution theory and lexical diffusion. In Jacek Fisiak and Marcin Krygier eds. Advances in English Historical Linguistics 1996. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 315-44.
  • Qiao, S.Z., J. Minett and W.S-Y. Wang. 1998. Evaluating phylogenetic trees by matrix decomposition. Anthropological Science 106.1.1-22.
  • Ogura, Mieko, W.S-Y. Wang and L.Luca Cavalli-Sforza. 1998. The development of Middle English I in English: a study in dynamic dialectology. In Jacek Fisiak and Akio Oizumi eds. English Historical Linguistics and Philology in Japan. Mouton de Gruyter. 237-86. Also printed in 1991. New Ways of Analyzing Sound Change, ed. by P. Eckert, 63-106: Academic Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1998. Representing relationships among linguistic elements. 1-14 in B.K. T’sou et al eds. Quantitative and Computational Studies on the Chinese Language. City University of Hong Kong.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1999a. Languages and peoples of China. Symposium Series of the Institute of Linguistic, Academia Sinica. In Yuen-mei Yin, I-li Yang and Hui-chen Chan eds. 《中國境内語言暨語言學·第五輯·語言中的互動》 [Chinese Languages and Linguistics V: Interactions in Language] 5:1-26.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1999b. Language emergence and transmission. 247-57 in A. Peyraube and C.F. Sun eds. In Honor of Mei Tsu-Lin: Studies on Chinese Historical Syntax and Morphology. Paris. École de Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Recherches Linquistiques sur l’Asie Orientale.
  • Schoenemann, P.T., T.F. Budinger, V.M. Sarich & W.S-Y. Wang. 2000. Brain size does not predict general cognitive ability within families. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  97.9.4932-7.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2001a. The joys of research: Mendel, Jones, and Human Origins. A lecture delivered at the Symposium on Broadening Research Frontiers at the City University of Hong Kong.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2001b. Human diversity and language diversity. Genetic, Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives on Human Diversity in Southeast Asia, ed. by L. Jin, M. Seielstad & C. Xiao, 17-33. Singapore: World Scientific.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2001c. 孟德爾與瓊斯, 道不同不相為謀? 《科學中國人》11.28-31.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and J.Y. Ke. 2001. 王士元, 柯津云. 語言的起源及建模仿真初探. 《中國語文》 282.195-200.
  • Karafet, Tatiana, L. Xu, R. Du, W.S-Y. Wang et al. 2001. Paternal population history of East Asia: sources, patterns, and microevolutionary processes. Am. J. Hum. Genet 69.615-28.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2002. 語言是雲南的文化寶藏. 《科學人 》10.58-9.
  • Ke, J.Y., J. Minett, C.P. Au & W.S-Y. Wang. 2002. Self-organization and selection in the emergence of vocabulary. Complexity 7.3.41-54.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2003. Yunnan and her cultural treasures. International Association of Chinese Linguistics Newsletter 11.2.3-5. Reprinted in 《漢藏語系語言研究》. 羅江文, 木霽弘, 馬京主編. 2005. 雲南民族出版社. 1-4.
  • Minett, J.W. and W.S-Y. Wang 2003. On detecting borrowing: distance-based and character-based approaches. Diachronica, 20.2.289-330.
  • 王士元, 李文雄, 王明珂. 2003. 中國民族的起源與形成過程. 中央研究院主題研究計畫. (Wang, W.S-Y., Wen-Hsiung Li and Ming-Ke Wang. The origins and formative processes of the Chinese peoples. Academia Sinica.)
  • Deng, X-H. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2003. 苗瑤語族語言的親緣關係的計量研究 — 詞源統計分析方法. 《中國語文》 3.253-63. [A quantitative study on the genetic relationship of Miao-Yao languages - the lexicostatistics approach.]
  • Deng, X-H. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2003. 藏緬族語言的數理分類及其形成過程的分析. 《民族語文》 4.8-18. [A study on the lexico-statistic classification of Tibeto-Burman languages and their formation.]
  • Deng, X-H. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2003. 古閩、客方言的來源以及歷史層次問題. 《古漢語研究》 2.8-12.
  • Ke, J.Y., M. Ogura & W.S-Y. Wang. 2003. Optimization models of sound systems using genetic algorithms. Computational Linguistics 29.1.1-18.
  • Wang, W.S-Y., J.Y. Ke & J.W. Minett. 2004. Computational studies of language evolution. Computational Linguistics and Beyond, Frontiers in Linguistics 1, Language and Linguistics Monograph Series B, ed. by C.R. Huang & W. Lenders, 65-108. Taipei: Academia Sinica: Institute of Linguistics.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2004. Dynamic dialectology and complex adaptive system. In M. Dossena and R. Lass eds. Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology. Bern: Peter Lang Publisher. 137-70.
  • Peng, Gang and W.S-Y. Wang. 2004. An innovative prosody modeling method for Chinese speech recognition. International Journal of Speech Technology 7.129-40.
  • Wang, Feng and W.S-Y. Wang. 2004. Basic words and language evolution. Language and Linguistics 5.3.643-62. Chinese translation: 2006. 汪鋒, 王士元. 谷峰譯. 基本詞匯與語言演變. 《語言學論叢》 33.340-358. 北京: 商務印書館.
  • Gong, T., J. Ke, J.W. Minett and W.S-Y.Wang. 2004. A computational framework to simulate the coevolution of language and social structure. Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, ed. by J. Pollack, M. A. Bedau, P. Husbands, T. Ikegami, and R. A. Watson, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (ALIFE9), Boston, US. 214-9.
  • Whitehouse, P., T. Usher, M. Ruhlen & W.S-Y. Wang. 2004. Kusunda: an Indo-Pacific language in Nepal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101.5692-5.
  • Gong, T. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2005. Computational modeling on language emergence: a coevolution model of lexicon, syntax and social structure. Language and Linguistics 6.1.1-41.
  • Gong, T., J. Ke, J.W. Minett, J.H. Holland and W.S-Y. Wang. 2005. Coevolution of lexicon and syntax from a simulation perspective. Complexity, 10.6: 50-62.
  • Peng, G. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2005. Tone recognition of continuous Cantonese speech based on support vector machines. Speech Communication 45.1.49-62.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. & J.W. Minett. 2005a. The invasion of language: emergence, change, and death. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20.5.263-9.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. & J.W. Minett. 2005b. Vertical and horizontal transmission in language evolution. Transactions of the Philological Society 103.2.121-46.
  • Wang, F. and W.S-Y. Wang, 汪鋒, 王士元. 2005. 語義創新與方言的親缘關係. 《方言》, 2.157-67. [Semantic innovations as a criterion for linguistic subgrouping.]
  • Wang, 王士元. 2005. 語言學的回顧與前瞻. 臺北: 《輔仁外語學報 》2.1-18. [Linguistics in retrospect and prospect.]
  • 汪鋒 & 王士元. 2006. 基本詞彙與語言演變. 谷峰譯. 《語言學論叢》 33.340-58.
  • Gong, T., J.W. Minett and W.S.-Y. Wang.  2006.  Computational simulation on the co-evolution of compositionality and regularity. In Cangelosi, A., A.D.M. Smith and K. Smith eds. The Evolution of Language: The Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Language Evolution. London: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. 99-106.
  • Minett, J.W., T. Gong and W.S-Y. Wang.  2006.  A language emergence model predicts word order bias. In  Cangelosi, A., A.D.M. Smith and K. Smith eds., The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference. World Scientific. 206-13.
  • Ogura, M. and W.S-Y. Wang. 2006. Ambiguity and language evolution: evolution of homophones and syllable number of words. In J. Fisiak eds. StudiaAngelicaPosnaniensia 42. Uniwersytet Im. Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu. 3-30.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006a. 演化語言學中的電腦建模. 北京: 《北京大學學報》(哲學社會科學版)43.17-22. [Computational modeling in evolutionary linguistics.]
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006b. 語言是一個複雜適應系統. 北京: 《清華大學學報》 (哲學社會科學版)21.5-13. [Language is a complex adaptive system.]
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006c. 語言演化的探索. 《門内日與月: 鄭錦全先生七秩壽慶論文集》. 語言暨語言學專刊外編之七. 鍾榮富, 劉顯親, 胥嘉陵, 何大安編輯. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. 9-32.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006d. 索緒爾與雅柯布森: 現代語言學歷史略談. 《四分溪論學集》下冊. 慶祝李遠哲先生七十壽辰論文集. 劉翠溶主編. 臺北: 允晨文化. 669-86.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006e. Hooked on language. 《山高水長: 丁邦新先生七秩壽慶論文集》. 語言暨語言學專刊外編之六. 何大安, 張洪年, 潘悟雲, 吳福祥編輯. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. 1-20.
  • Wang, 王士元. 2006f. 淺談索緒爾與雅柯布森對現代語言學的貢獻. 臺北: 《輔仁外語學報》 3.1-21.
  • Wong, F., J.W. Minett and W.S-Y. Wang. 2006. Reassessing combinatorial productivity exhibited by simple recurrent networks in language acquisition. Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vancouver, Canada, July 2006. 1596-1603.
  • 王士元, 2007. 語言習得與關鍵年齡的問題. 《華文世界》 99.64-8.
  • Wong, Francis C.K. and W.S-Y Wang. 2007. Combinatorial productivity through the emergence of categories in connectionist networks. Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete & Impressive Systems (DCDIS) A Supplement, Advances in Neural Networks 14(S1)650-7.
  • Deng, 鄧曉華, 王士元. 2007. 壯侗語族語言的數理分類及其時間深度 [A study on the lexicostatistic classification and the measurement of the time depth of the Zhuang-Dong languages.] 《中國語文》 6(321)536-48.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2007. The language mosaic and its biological bases. Journal of Bio-Education 2.1.8-16. Chinese translation: 2008. 語言馬賽克及其生物基礎. 陳永禹譯. 《輔仁外語學報》5.1-22.
  • Ke, Jinyun, Tao Gong & W.S-Y. Wang. 2008. Language change and social networks. Communications in Computational Physics 3.935-49.
  • Minett, James W. & William S. Y. Wang. 2008. Modelling endangered languages: The effects of bilingualism and social structure. Lingua 118.19-45.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2008. 宏觀語音學. 《中國語音學報》1.1-9.
  • Gong, Tao, Andrea Puglisi, Vittorio Loreto & William S-Y. Wang. 2008. Conventionalization of linguistic knowledge under communicative constraints. Biological Theory 3.154-63.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2008. Recent advances in evolutionary linguistics. Interfaces in Chinese Phonology: Festschrift in Honor of Matthew Y. Chen on His 70th Birthday. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series W-8, ed. by Y.E. Hsiao, H.-c. Hsu, L.-H. Wee & D.-a. Ho, 279-94. Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica.
  • Gong, T. & Wang, W. S-Y. 2008. The reserve role of the naming game in social structure. In A. D. M. Smith, K. Smith, & R. Ferrer i Cancho eds. The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference (EvoLang7), 139-46. Singapore: World Scientific.
  • Gong, T., Minett, J. W., & Wang, W. S-Y. 2008a. Exploring social structure effect on language evolution based on a computational model. Connection Science 20.2-3.135-53.
  • Gong, Tao, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wangb. 2008. A Simulation Study on Coevolution of Compositionality and Regularity.
  • Gong, T., Minett, J. W., & Wang, W. S-Y. 2008c. The role of cultural transmission in individual’s language-related ability. In A. D. M. Smith, K. Smith, & R. Ferrer i Cancho eds. The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference (EvoLang7), 139-46. Singapore: World Scientific.
  • Peng, Gang, James W. Minett & W.S-Y. Wang. 2008. The networks of syllables and characters in Chinese. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 15.243-55.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2008. 演化論與中國語言學. 《南開語言學刊》 2.1-15.
  • Wang, Feng, Yaching Tsai & W.S-Y. Wang. 2009. Chinese literacy. Cambridge Handbook on Literacy, ed. by D. Olson & N. Torrance, 386-417: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gong, Tao, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wang. 2009a. A simulation study on word order bias. Interaction Studies 10.51-76.
  • Gong, Tao, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wang. 2009b. A framework triggering displacement in human language.
  • Siok, Wai Ting, Paul Kay, William S. Y. Wang, Alice H. D. Chan, Lin Chen, Kang-Kwong Luke & Li Hai Tan. 2009. Language regions of brain are operative in color perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106.8140-45.
  • 鄧曉華 & 王士元. 2009. 壯侗語族語言的數理分類及其與漢語、南島語的關係的研究. 《中國的語言及方言的分類》, ed. by 鄧曉華 & 王士元, 45-75. 北京/香港: 中華書局.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2010. 中國的語言與民族. 《茶馬古道研究集刊》1.1-16.
  • Gong, Tao, James W. Minett & William S. -Y. Wang. 2010. A simulation study exploring the role of cultural transmission in language evolution. Connection Science 22.69-85.
  • Peng, Gang, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wang. 2010. Cultural Background Influences the Liminal Perception of Chinese Characters: An ERP Study. Journal of Neurolinguistics 23.416-26.
  • Peng, Gang, Hong-Ying Zheng, Tao Gong, Ruo-Xiao Yang, Jiang-Ping Kong & William S-Y. Wang. 2010. The influence of language experience on categorical perception of pitch contours. Journal of Phonetics 38.616-24.
  • Wang 王士元 , W. S.-Y. 2011. 演化語言學的演化. 《當代語言學》13.1.1-21.
  • Peng, G. & William S-Y. Wang. 2011. Hemisphere lateralization is influenced by bilingual status and composition of words. Neuropsychologia 49.1981-6.
  • Wang, William S-Y. & Yaching Tsai. 2011. The alphabet and the sinogram: Setting the stage for a look across orthographies. Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain–Gene–Behavior Link, ed. by P. McCardle, J.R. Lee, B. Miller & O. Tzeng, 1-16: Brookes Publishing.
  • Wang 王士元 , William S-Y. 2011. Ambiguity in language. Korean Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 1.3-20.
  • Ogura, Mieko & William S-Y. Wang. 2012. The global organization of the English lexicon and its evolution. English Historical Linguistics 2008, Volume II: Words, Texts and Genres, ed. by H. Sauer & G. Waxenberger, 65-83: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Peng, Gang, Caicai Zhang, Hongying Zheng, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wang. 2012. The effect of intertalker variations on acoustic-perceptual mappings in Cantonese and Mandarin tone systems. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55.579-95.
  • Zhang, Caicai, Gang Peng & William S-Y. Wang. 2012. Unequal effects of speech and nonspeech contexts on the perceptual normalization of Cantonese level tones. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132.1088-99.
  • Zheng, Hong-Ying, James Minett, Gang Peng & S-Y.W. Wang. 2012. The Impact of Tone Systems on the Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones: An Event-related Potentials Study. Language and Cognitive Processes 27.184-209.
  • Minett, James William, Hong-Ying Zheng, Manson C-M. Fong, Lin Zhou, Gang Peng & William S-Y. Wang. 2012. A Chinese text input brain-computer interface based on the P300 speller. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 28.472-83.
  • Zhou, Lin, Gang Peng, Hong-Ying Zheng, I.-Fan Su & William S-Y. Wang. 2013. Sub-lexical phonological and semantic processing of semantic radicals: a primed naming study. Reading and Writing. 26. 967-89.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2013. Language learning and the brain: An evolutionary perspective. In Breaking Down the Barriers: Interdisciplinary Studies in Chinese Linguistics and Beyond, Language and Linguistics Monograph Series 50. 《綜古述今 鉤深取極. 語言暨語言學專刊系列之五十》, ed. by Cao Guangshun曹廣順, Hilary Chappell曹茜蕾, Redouane Djamouri 羅端and Thekla Wiebusch魏婷蘭, 21-48. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica..
  • 王士元. 2013. 語言演化的三個尺度. 《科學中國人》 1.16-20.
  • Zhang, C., Peng, G., and Wang, W. S-Y. 2013. Achieving constancy in spoken word identification: Time course of talker normalization. Brain and Language 126. 193-202.
  • Peng, Gang, Ruo-Xiao Yang & William S-Y. Wang. 2013. Lateralized Stroop interference effect with Chinese characters. 《實驗語言學》 2(1).1-8.
  • Peng, Gang, Diana Deutsch, Trevor Henthorn, Danjie Su & William S-Y. Wang. 2013. Language experience influences non-linguistic pitch perception. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 41(2): 447-67.
  • 王士元. 2013. 誰是中國人? 《科學中國人》 8.38-43.
  • 拉波夫 & 王士元. 2014. 語音變化前沿問題演講錄. 《語言教學與研究》 1.1-12.
  • Ogura, Mieko, Takumi Inakazu & William S-Y. Wang. Evolution of tense and aspect. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference (EVOLANG 10), Vienna, Austria, 14-17 April 2014, ed. by E.A. Cartmill, S. Roberts, H. Lyn & H. Cornish, 213-20. World Scientific.
  • Zhou, Lin, Manson C-M. Fong, James W. Minett, Gang Peng & William S-Y. Wang. 2014. Pre-lexical phonological processing in reading Chinese characters: An ERP study. Journal of Neurolinguistics 30.14-26.
  • Zheng, Hong-Ying, Gang Peng, Jian-Yong Chen, Caicai Zhang, James W. Minett & William S-Y. Wang. 2014. The influence of tone inventory on ERP without focal attention - a cross-language study. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.1-7.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2014. Ancestry of languages and of peoples (語言及人類的祖先). 《語言學論叢》 50.1-28.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2014. 語言演變中的相變. 張妍&蔡雅菁譯.《南開語言學刊》2.1-13.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2015. The peoples and languages of China: Evolutionary background. Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, ed. by W.S.-Y. Wang & C. F. Sun, 19-33. Oxford University Press.
  • Wang, William S-Y. & Chaofen Sun.  2015. Introduction. Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, ed. by W.S.-Y. Wang & C. F. Sun, 3-18. Oxford University Press.
  • 王士元. 2015. 我們的兩門遠房親戚. 《科學人》3.74-77.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2015. Some issues in the study of language evolution. 《語言研究》35.3.1-11.
  • Wang, William S-Y. 2015. Chinese linguistics. Routledge Encyclopedia of Chinese Linguistics. 152-83. Routledge.


  • Wang, 王士元, 陸孝棟編譯. 1965. 《變換律語法理論》. Hong Kong University Press. 124 pages. (Translation and expansion of Syntactic Structures by N. Chomsky.)
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and A. Lyovin eds. 1970. CLIBOC: Chinese Linguistics Bibliography on Computer. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1977. The Lexicon in Phonological Change. The Hague: Mouton. 278 pages.
  • Fillmore, C.J., D. Kempler and W.S‑Y. Wang eds. 1979. Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior. Academic Press. 
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1982a. Human Communication: Language and Its Psychobiological Bases. W. H. Freeman and Company. 196 pages. Chinese translation published by廣西教育出版社: 《語言與人類交際》. 游汝杰, 潘悟雲, 張洪明等譯. 葛傳椝, 徐烈炯審校. 1987.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1982b. Explorations in Language Evolution. Osmania Papers in Linguistics. Hyderabad, India: Osmania University Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1983. 實驗語音學講座 [Lectures on experimental phonology]; 學術報告 [Report on recent researches]. 《語言學論叢》第十一輯. 北京: 商務印書館.  Re-issued in 1988 as 《語言與語音》 by 文鶴出版社 (Taibei).
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1985. 《現代語言學專題講座》. 成都: 四川師範大學.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1986. Language, Writing and the Computer. W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and Z.W. Shen. 1988. 《方法,理論與方言研究》. Hong Kong Linguistic Society.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1989. The Basis of Speech. Tokyo: Kenkyusha Publishers.
    Japanese translation of expanded version by Mieko Ogura 小倉美惠子. 《発話の基礎 ―生理的・物理的・言語的分析》.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1991a. Languages and Dialects of China. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph No.3. Berkeley.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1991b. The Emergence of Language: Development and Evolution. Readings from Scientific American Magazine. W.H. Freeman. Chinese translation: 2008. 林幼菁譯. 《語言湧現:發展與演化》. 語言暨語言學專刊D-1. 台北: 中央研究院語言學研究所.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1991c. Explorations in Language. Taibei: Pyramid Press.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. ed. 1995. The Ancestry of the Chinese Language. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph No.8. Chinese translation: 2005. 李葆嘉主譯. 《漢語的祖先》. 北京: 中華書局.
  • Benjamin K. T’sou, Tom B.Y.Lai, Samuel W.K. Chan, William S-Y. Wang, eds. 1998. Quantitative and Computational Studies on the Chinese Language (漢語計量與計算研究). Hong Kong: Language Information Sciences Research Centre (LISRC), City University of Hong Kong.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2000. 《語言的探索: 王士元語言學論文選譯》. 石鋒主譯. 北京: 語言文化大學出版社.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2002. 《王士元語言學論文集》. 北京: 商務印書館.
  • Minett, J.W. and W.S-Y. Wang eds. 2005. Language Acquisition, Change and Emergence: Essays in Evolutionary Linguistics. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.
  • 王士元, 彭剛. 2006. 《語言, 語音與技術》. 上海教育出版社. (Simplified Chinese ed.)
  • 王士元, 彭剛. 2007. 《語言, 語音與技術》. 香港城市大學出版社. (Traditional Chinese ed.)
  • Minett, J.W. & W.S-Y.  Wang, eds. 2009. Language, Evolution, and the Brain: City University of Hong Kong Press.
  • 鄧曉華, 王士元. 2009. 《中國的語言及方言的分類》. 北京/香港:中華書局.
  • 王士元. 2010. 《王士元語音學論文集》. 北京: 世界圖書出版公司.
  • 王士元. 2011. 《語言、演化與大腦》. 北京: 商務印書館. (Simplified Chinese ed.)
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2013. Love and War in Ancient China: Voices from the Shijing.
  • City University of Hong Kong Press.
  • 王士元. 2013. 《語言、演化與大腦》.臺北: 高等教育出版社. (Traditional Chinese ed.)
  • 王士元. 2013. 《演化語言學論集》.北京: 商務印書館.
  • William S-Y. Wang & Sun, C.F. (eds). 2015. Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics. Oxford University Press.


  • Ronald S. Tikofsky and Wang, W.S-Y. 1960.Speech. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 1st ed., 593-9; 1987. 6th ed., 222-6; 1992. 7th ed., 226-30.
  • Wang,W.S-Y. 1980. The Chinese language. The Academic American Encyclopedia.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1992. Origins of language. Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 139-41. William Frawley, editor-in-chief. Reprinted in Wang, W.S-Y. 1991. Explorations in Language. 162-4.
  • Wang,W.S-Y. 1994. Y.R. Chao. In R.E. Asher ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Pergamon Press. 504.
  • Wang,W.S-Y. 1994. Glottochronology, lexicostatistics, and other numerical methods. In R.E. Asher ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 3. New York: Pergamon Press, 1445-50. Chinese translation: 2002. 陳保亞, 周政后譯. 詞源統計分析法、詞彙統計學和其他數理統計方法. 《王士元語言學論文集》. 262-79.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. and R.E. Asher. 1994. Chinese linguistic tradition. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 524-7. Elsevier.  Reprinted in 1995. Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. E.F.K. Koerner and R.E. Asher eds. New York: Pergamon Press. 41-44.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 1994. Sino-Tibetan. In R.E. Asher ed. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Pergamon Press. 3951-3.
  • Wang, W.S-Y. 2005. Chinese [Mandarin].Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Ed. by Philipp Strazny. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. 194-8.
  • Wang,W.S-Y. 2004. Tone languages. The Linguistics Encyclopedia, Kirstin Malmkjaer ed. Routledge & Kegan. 2nd ed. 552-8. Paperback edition. 2013. 548-53.

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